What is HIV?

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks cells in the body that help it combat infections, making a person more susceptible to other infections and diseases. Contact with the body fluids of an HIV-positive person, most often during unprotected intercourse (sex without the use of a condom), or sharing drug injection equipment spreads the virus.

HIV cannot be eradicated by the human body, and there is no successful HIV cure. As a result, if you have HIV, you will have it for the rest of your life.If HIV is not treated, it may progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

People with HIV, on the other hand, can live long and stable lives while preventing HIV transmission to their sexual partners by taking HIV medication (also known as antiretroviral therapy or ART). There are also effective strategies for preventing HIV infection from sex or drug use, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).

What is AIDS?

AIDS is a late stage of HIV infection in which the body’s immune system has been severely impaired by the virus.

A person with HIV is considered to have progressed to AIDS when:

  • Their CD4 cell count drops to less than 200 cells per cubic millimetre of blood (200 cells/mm3). CD4 counts range from 500 to 1,600 cells/mm3 in people with a healthy immune system.
  • Regardless of their CD4 count, they develop one or more opportunistic infections.

People with AIDS have a three-year survival rate if they do not take HIV medication. Without treatment, a person’s life expectancy drops to around a year after acquiring a dangerous opportunistic disease. At this point of HIV infection, HIV treatment can still benefit patients, and it can even save their lives. Patients who begin antiretroviral therapy (ART) as soon as they are diagnosed with HIV gain more benefits, which is why HIV testing is so necessary.

How do I know if I have HIV?

Testing is the only way to know for sure whether you have HIV.Depending on the length of exposure, a number of HIV tests are available.Several establishments provide a private and confidential Anonymous HIV screening to encourage more people to come in and screen for HIV.

Anonymous HIV testing is performed using a rapid test with results available in minutes.Prior to the exam, you will be asked to complete a simple form that will be used to collect demographic data for the Ministry of Health, but no personal information such as name or contact number will be recorded.

There will be no notice to official bodies if your result is positive because no personal information was registered.

When to test for HIV?

The window period is the interval between infection and seroconversion where infection markers (p24 antigen and antibodies) are still missing or too scarce to be detected. During the window period, tests cannot always detect HIV infection.

All tests have a window period, which varies depending on the test.It’s worth noting that after contracting HIV, there’s a period of time when no test can reliably detect it (day 1 till day 12). If anyone takes an HIV test during this period, they might get a false-negative result.Since there are differences between individuals, it’s difficult to tell how long the window period for any test lasts.

For example, the following are the actions to be considered following an exposure towards HIV:

Day 1-3 : Consider Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

Day 1-11 : No HIV test available

Day 12 onward : HIV RNA/DNA PCR test 

Day 14 onward : 4th Generation Combo test can start detect the infection but may have false negatives

Day 28 onward : 4th Generation Combo test (>95% accuracy)

Day 90 onward : 3rd Generation Ab-only test (>99% accuracy)

4th Generation Combo Test

When a person is infected with HIV, their immune system produces antibodies in response to the p24 antigens on the virus. P24 antigens are a component of the virus, and studies show that they occur within two weeks of HIV infection. HIV tests of the fourth generation can detect both HIV antibodies and p24 antigens, whereas older versions could only detect antibodies.As a result, a fourth-generation test can detect HIV as early as one month after a person contracts it, making it highly accurate.

Fourth-generation HIV tests may accurately diagnose the virus as early as one month after infection and may be considered definitive. However, it is recommended that HIV testing be repeated three months and six months after the HIV threat as part of the HIV testing protocol.

Nonetheless, the window period for fourth-generation tests is estimated to be 18 days, with half of all infections identified between 13- and 24-days following exposure. Even if it takes a little longer in certain cases, 95-99 percent of HIV-infected people are detectable within 28 days of exposure.

3rd Generation Ab-only Test

When you become HIV-positive, the body begins to develop specific antibodies (proteins that attach to the virus to try and destroy it). Antibodies to HIV are found in your blood, oral fluid, and urine in an HIV antibody test. If you have these antibodies, it means your body is responding to an HIV infection and you have HIV.

The 3rd generation test is only made to detect HIV antibodies. It will detect antibodies like immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM), but not to the p24 viral antigen.Since it takes three months for the body to create enough antibodies for it to show up in a test, this test is only valid three months after exposure. 

 

What happens when you go for a test?

Your healthcare provider will speak to you about your sexual well being and why you’ve decided to test before you take the test. This will help them better understand your situation and provide you with the best services and advice possible.

Remember that the healthcare provider is not there to make any judgments. There will be nothing you can say that they haven’t already heard, so be open and truthful, and ask as many questions as you want. That’s why they’re there in the first place.

Normally, testing involves taking a small blood sample from a finger prick or drawn from your arm.

The length of time it takes for HIV test results to be returned is determined by the type of test you are taking. You can get your results within 20 minutes if you are taking a rapid exam. Other forms of samples might be submitted to a laboratory, and the final result could take anything from a few days to a few weeks.

Even when today’s tests are extremely accurate, if your result is positive, you should have a second confirmatory test to double-check your results. If this is also positive, you will be diagnosed with HIV and will be likely to start treatment.

CLICK ON THE PICTURE BELOW IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE ABOUT HOW TO PREVENT HIV

RECOMMENDED MEDICAL ARTICLES FOR YOU

Medication

Oral medications is a method to reverse erectile dysfunction by enhancing the effects of nitric oxide, a natural chemical your body produces that relaxes muscles in the penis.

Although they work in similar ways, each oral medication has a slightly different chemical makeup. These minor differences affect the way each medication works, such as how quickly it takes effect and wears off, and the potential side effects. Your doctor will consider these factors as well as other conditions you have and possible interactions with other medications you take.

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Sildenafil (Viagra)

This medication is most effective when taken on an empty stomach one hour before sex. It's effective for four to five hours or more if you have mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.

Duration of effectiveness/half-life: 4 hours Dosage: 25mg, 50mg, 100mg Common side effects: Hot flushing, headache, abnormal vision (changes in colour vision), muscle pain, uncomfortable stomach
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Tadalafil (Cialis)

Duration of effectiveness/half-life: 17.5 hours Dosage: 2.5mg, 5mg, 10mg, 20mg Common side effects: Hot flushing, headache, stomach upset, back pain, stuffy nose, dizziness

Duration of effectiveness/half-life:
17.5 hours

Dosage:
2.5mg, 5mg, 10mg, 20mg

Common side effects:
Hot flushing, headache, stomach upset, back pain, stuffy nose, dizziness

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Vardenafil (Levitra)

Duration of effectiveness/half-life: 4.5 hours Dosage: 2.5mg, 5mg, 10mg, 20mg Common side effects: Hot flushing, headache, stomach upset, back pain, stuffy nose, dizzines, flu-like symptoms

Duration of effectiveness/half-life:
4.5 hours

Dosage:
2.5mg, 5mg, 10mg, 20mg

Common side effects:
Hot flushing, headache, stomach upset, back pain, stuffy nose, dizzines, flu-like symptoms

Treatment

Oral medications is a method to reverse erectile dysfunction by enhancing the effects of nitric oxide, a natural chemical your body produces that relaxes muscles in the penis.

Although they work in similar ways, each oral medication has a slightly different chemical makeup. These minor differences affect the way each medication works, such as how quickly it takes effect and wears off, and the potential side effects. Your doctor will consider these factors as well as other conditions you have and possible interactions with other medications you take.

Men's Health

Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT)

Principle of therapy:
Using mechanical shockwave to improve blood flow + formation of new blood vessels.

Duration of therapy:
16-17minutes per session.

Frequency of therapy: Recommended frequency of therapy would be 2-3 times per week, however flexible.

Pre-procedure preparation:
None.

Side effects:
Mild tingling sensation during procedure. Zero downtime post procedure.

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Priapus Shot (P-shot)

Principle of therapy:
Using Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) from our blood that contains proteins involved in healing and growth

Duration of therapy:
30 minutes per session.

Frequency of therapy: Recommended frequency of once a week

Pre-procedure preparation:
None.

Side effects:
Blood will be taken from arm via syringe and needle. PRP will be extracted from blood and injected back into penis. Mild pain or discomfort may be observed over site of injection, however not lasting as small needle is used for injection.

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EMkegel

Principle of therapy:
Using electromagnetic waves to simulate kegel exercise, strengthening perineal muscles- muscles involved during erection and intercourse.

Duration of therapy:
30 minutes per session.

Frequency of therapy: Recommended frequency of therapy would be 2-3 times per week, however flexible.

Pre-procedure preparation:
None.

Side effects:
Mild tingling sensation during procedure. Zero downtime post procedure.

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    He Medical Clinic is a clinic specialised in Health. We offer advanced medical treatments such as HIV /STD Test & Treatment and health screening.

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